Esophageal Varices

Marcelle Meseeha; Maximos Attia. Author Information Introduction Esophageal varices are dilated submucosal distal esophageal veins connecting the portal and systemic circulations. This happens due to portal hypertension (most commonly a result of cirrhosis), resistance to portal blood flow, and increased portal venous blood inflow. The most common fatal complication of cirrhosis is variceal rupture; the severity of liver […]

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Anal Fissures

Brian Jahnny; John V. Ashurst. Author Information Introduction An anal fissure is a superficial tear in the skin distal to the dentate line and is a cause of frequent emergency department visits. In most cases, anal fissures are a result of hard stools or constipation, or injury. Anal fissures are common in both adults and children, and […]

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Appendicitis

Introduction Mark W. Jones; Richard A. Lopez; Jeffrey G. Deppen. Appendicitis is inflammation of the vermiform appendix. Appendix a hollow organ located at the tip of the cecum, usually in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen. However, it can be located in almost any area of the abdomen, depending on if there were any abnormal developmental issues, including midgut […]

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Lung Protrusion: Tragic Consequence of a Knife Assault

Lung Protrusion refers to the exposure of lung parenchyma from a defect in the chest wall. This is a case of knife assault which caused lung evisceration. A 20-year-old presented to the Emergency Department with bilateral stab wounds in the thorax, causing lung protrusion. He also had exposed lung parenchyma on the left side. He […]

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Giant solitary hydatid cyst of spleen—A case report

M.M. Pukar⁎ and Shabari M. Pukar 1. Introduction Hydatid disease (Echinococcosis) is a zoonotic infection caused by the larval form of parasites of tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. Humans are the accidental intermediate host in the development cycle of hydatid disease. It is an endemic disease in the sheep and cattle raising countries Middle East, North Africa, New Zealand, Australia, […]

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Cholesterol Gallstones

Cholesterol stones are formed when the bile is supersaturated with cholesterol, which may result from decreased bile acid production, increased cholesterol output in bile or both. Stone formation by cholesterol monohydrate crystals is enhanced by mucin hypersecretion and gallbladder hypomotility. Cholesterol stone formation is promoted by conditions that increase hepatic cholesterol excretion, such as oral […]

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Physiologic and Pharmacologic Effects of Corticosteroids

Corticosteroids are key regulators of whole-body homeostasis that provide an organism with the capacity to resist environmental changes and invasion of foreign substances. The effects of corticosteroids are widespread, including profound alterations in carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism, and the modulation of electrolyte and water balance. Corticosteroids affect all of the major systems of the […]

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Ruptured desmoid tumor in the jejunum

Abstract Desmoid tumors, also known as aggressive fibromatosis, are extremely rare, accounting for less than 3% of soft-tissue sarcomas and less than 0,03% of all neoplasms. The diagnosis is usually delayed because of the lack of specific symptoms, and can sometimes lead to serious and, even fatal complications. Case presentation The case report was prepared […]

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Caput medusae in alcoholic liver disease

Caput medusae is the appearance of distended and engorged superficial epigastric veins, which are seen radiating from the umbilicus across the abdomen. Case report: A 53-year-old man, with history of alcohol consumption of 60 gm/day for 20 years, presented with swelling of the legs, abdominal distension, and a collapsible localized swelling over the abdomen since 3 […]

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Ulcerative colitis in a Nigerian girl: A case report

Case presentation A 7 year old girl presented to the paediatric gastroenterology clinic at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja with a history of prolonged diarrhoea of 10 weeks that progressed to frank haematochezia 2 weeks later. She also presented with abdominal pain weight loss of over 8 weeks duration. Stool was initially […]

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