Retinoblastoma (Rb) is a rare form of cancer that rapidly develops from the immature cells of a retina, the light-detecting tissue of the eye. It is the most common primary malignant intraocular cancer in children, and it is almost exclusively found in young children.
Cause – Mutation of genes, found in chromosomes, can affect the way in which cells grow and develop within the body. Alterations in RB1 or MYCN can give rise to retinoblastoma.
Classification – The two forms of the disease are a heritable form and nonheritable form (all cancers are considered genetic in that mutations of the genome are required for their development, but this does not imply that they are heritable, or transmitted to offspring). Around 55% of children with retinoblastoma have the nonheritable form. If no history of the disease exists within the family, the disease is labeled “sporadic”, but this does not necessarily indicate that it is the nonheritable form. Bilateral retinoblastomas are commonly heritable, while unilateral retinoblastomas are commonly nonheritable.
Treatment – The priority of retinoblastoma treatment is to preserve the life of the child, then to preserve vision, and then to minimize complications or side effects of treatment. The exact course of treatment depends on the individual case and is decided by the ophthalmologist in discussion with the paediatric oncologist. Children with involvement of both eyes at diagnosis usually require multimodality therapy (chemotherapy, local therapies).